Saturday, October 3, 2015

2,000 Year Old Greek Analog Computer Baffles Researchers | Ancient Humans Knew The Earth Was Round

Thank you Aaron from Manifest Destiny Triforce for this one. 

Perhaps the modern day view of slow and steady technological progress needs to be challenged. Archeology contends that the human race was more primitive the further back one looks at history, yet there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the reverse, that ancient humans may have been far more advanced then previously thought. 

Related The Secret of Gobekli Tepe: Cosmic Equinox and Sacred Marriage

The Antikythera device was found over 100 years ago in a shipwreck, scattered in pieces and fragments that have only recently been deciphered and reconstructed. Michael Wright spent many years analyzing and replicating components, finally producing a working replica.

The device appears to be for tracking the movements of the heavens, using a heliocentric model of the solar system that predates Copernicus and Galileo by fifteen hundred years. Flat Earth proponents that assert the ancients 'knew the Earth was flat' should find this discovery of keen interest. 

Clearly the ancients had a far greater understanding of the universe then modern day academia is willing to admit. 

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Related Hidden History Revealed | Zecharia Sitchin - Sumerians & The Anunnaki played a major role in Earth's History up until ~ 3,000 years ago

Related Evolution of Humans | Everything You Know Is Wrong (about Human Origins) - Lloyd Pye

- Justin

Source - Time Wheel

In an ancient shipwreck off the shore of the Greek Island of Antikythera, explorers discovered what is now known as the Antikythera Mechanism. 

Discovered in 1901, it was a mystery for over one-hundred years as to what exactly this device was and how it operated due to centuries of ocean water damage. Now, its elusive purpose and puzzling complexity is finally understood and its significance in human history is far greater than ever imagined.

This ancient mechanism is a computational device that was crafted over two-thousand years ago in order to calculate astronomical positioning and alignments for calendrical and astrological purposes, as well as determining the cycles of the Olympic Games. 

This ancient analog computer was constructed using an intricate assembly of nearly 30 bronze gear wheels contained within a carefully designed case with an array of dials on the outside of it.

Researchers are perplexed by this device as it demonstrates technological understanding similar to that of the 18th century, yet it was constructed between 150 and 100 BCE. All known ancient instruments that even begin to compare to the mechanical complexity of this celestial super-computer were all created at least a thousand years later. 

Perhaps the brilliant minds behind the design and construction of the Antikythera Mechanism suffered the same peril alongside their creation, leaving the world to rediscover the computation of astronomical positioning.

In the video below, UK Mechanician & Historian of Mechanism Michael Wright has recreated a fully-functional Antikythera Mechanism, the first ever recreation of this device that demonstrates its full range of operation for the first time in 2,000 years.


Source - Age of the Sage

The Antikythera Mechanism discovery

Sometime before Easter 1900 a Greek sponge diver discovered the wreck of an ancient cargo ship off Antikythera island which is located to the north-west of Crete in the Dodecanese.

Divers subsequently retrieved several bronze and marble statues and other artifacts from the site.
The interest of the professional archaeologists brought in to conserve and assess the finds was initially centered on the fine statuary and the Antikythera Mechanism itself was only discovered to be of immense interest in May 17, 1902, when an archaeologist noticed that a piece of rock recovered from the site had a gear wheel embedded in it. Examination revealed that the "rock" was in fact a heavily encrusted and corroded mechanism that had survived the shipwreck in three main parts and dozens of smaller fragments. The device itself was surprisingly thin, about 33 cm (13in) high, 17 cm (6.75in) wide and 9 cm (3.5in) thick, made of bronze and originally mounted in a wooden frame.

The Antikythera mechanism is one of the world's oldest known geared devices. It has puzzled and intrigued historians of science and technology since its discovery. The device seemed to have a range of interlocking gears made of bronze and a hand crank to give a turning movement to the geared mechanism, plus a display that showed information about the moon, sun and planets against a background of stars.

Following decades of work cleaning the device, in 1951 British science historian Derek J. de Solla Price undertook systematic investigation of the mechanism. In June 1959, Price's "An Ancient Greek Computer" was the lead article in Scientific American. This article was the result of the first thorough description of the device "based solely on visual inspection and measurements."

The Antikythera Mechanism is strongly suggestive of an ancient Greek tradition of complex mechanical technology which, transmitted via the Arab world, formed the basis of European clockmaking techniques.

Another, smaller, device dating from the sixth century AD, has been discovered which models the motions of the sun and moon and provides a previously missing link between the Antikythera mechanism and later Islamic calendar computers, such as the 13th century example at the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford. That device, in turn, uses techniques described in a manuscript written by al-Biruni, an Arab astronomer, around 1000AD.

The device was too fragile to be removed from its home at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, so the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project team constructed a 12-ton portable micro focus computerized tomographer that used high resolution X-rays to probe the object and create a 3-dimensional image.

A reinterpretation of the function of the various fragments by Michael Wright of Imperial College London developed between 2002 and 2005 arrived at an entirely different assembly for the gears than previously thought. 

Wright's reconstruction of the device, with 72 gears, suggests it may have been an orrery that was intended to mechanically demonstrate the motions of the five planets known to the Greeks of the time.

Taking all the available facts into account, the prevailing theory at the moment is that the device was a clockwork-like mechanism designed to display the progress and positions of the sun, moon, and probably all five of the other planets known at the time (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) over a period of 19 years. In other words: it's an analog astronomical computer. It had apparently been built several years before the shipwreck - most likely in 82 B.C.

In 2006, the Project announced that with the aid of tomography almost 95 percent of the text engraved on the various parts of the device is now readable, giving scientists a much-improved understanding of its capabilities. 

The mechanism is now considered to have been an analog computer designed to allow the operator to "mechanically" predict the future or past positions of the sun, moon, and probably some of the planets through the turning of a handle on the side of the mechanisms case which caused the internal gearing to turn imparting motion to hands on readable dials.

On the front of the device were two dials marked with the zodiac and a solar calendar, with pointers for the Sun and Moon plus a display showing the phase of the moon. On the rear of the object was displayed information about the Saros cycle (a period of around 18 years used in eclipse prediction) and the Callippic cycle (a period of about 76 years) using two ingeniously designed spiral dials.

The makers of the Antikythera Mechanism - from the Ancient World as they were! - seem to have accepted that the Sun was at the centre of an orbital system, - anticipating Copernicus and Galileo by some fifteen hundred years.

The device uses a differential gear, previously believed to have been invented in the middle ages, and is remarkable for the level of miniaturization and complexity of its parts, which is comparable to that of 18th century clocks. It is probable that the Antikythera mechanism was not unique. Cicero, writing in the 1st century BC, mentions an instrument "recently constructed by our friend Posidonius, which at each revolution reproduces the same motions of the sun, the moon and the five planets."

The levels of precision and astronomical understanding necessary to the functionality of the antikythera Mechanism perhaps attest to the strong possibility that this example of ancient genius in mechanics and science was not unique and that its designers and fabricators were capable of producing other examples of such, or similar, instruments.


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