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Friday, February 20, 2015

Life Everywhere in the Universe - Does Life Emerge from the Environment? | RNA, Sea Plankton on ISS and Freeze Dried Bacteria

Julian and I were recently watching an episode of Wisdom Teachings with David Wilcock, episode 87. In this episode David talks about a major ramp up in Disclosure of Extraterrestrial Life, providing evidence that disproves Darwinian theory is. In addition it is being reported that there are millions of habitable planets in our Galaxy alone.

Here are three articles suggesting life is emerges from the environment oppose to evolves from other life by accident (i.e. Darwinian Evolution)

Evolution of life's 'operating system' revealed

The article from Daily Mail demonstrates the shift in thinking now sweeping many of the dogmatic institutions of the past. It suggests there is infact a massive disclosure of information preparing humanity for the ultimate realization of Extraterrestrial Life and Civilizations. Whether or not the prediction proffered by Wilcock will come to pass, the Apocalypse or great revealing continues. Ignorance is a choice during this age where the mysteries of the ages are at the fingertips of nearly everyone via the internet.

Quotes of note from this article are:
"The history of the ribosome tells us about the origin of life," said Loren Williams, a  professor in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of  Technology.

"We have worked out on a fine level of detail how the ribosome originated and evolved."

"We learned some of the rules of the ribosome, that evolution can change the ribosome  as long as it does not mess with its core,' Professor Williams said."

"Evolution can add things on, but it can’t change what was already there."
What is being stated here is that the primary core of Ribosomal DNA is standard throughout all known life. When we consider Cymatics and the emergent nature of chemical organization by way of "energetic" entrainment, this suggests life organizes out of a holistic relationship with the environment, and not by way of Darwinian Evolution. Dewey Larson spends a great deal of time discussing how life as we know it - flora and fauna - seem to defy the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy, which states all things are moving from order to disorder. Life in present day Science takes 'dead things' - mineral compounds - and converts them into living organisms - mineral, to plant, to animal. However, if we use the concept of Ordering as the boundary condition for what life is - a system which organizes other things into an ordered 'body' - then any system we can observe in operation must be 'alive' within the degree to which it applies. Crystals, minerals, molecules and even atoms are alive in this respect, as Larson alludes to in Beyond Space and Time.


All of this is mirrored in many alternative science and various spiritual works including: Gnostic Teachings, Hermetic PhilosophyLaw of One, Urantia BookBasharWalter Russell, and countless other channelings and 'New Age' schools of thought. The conceptual data offered in these works does not prove the premise of a living universe, but does provide a framework of understanding. As David suggests, the universe does seem to be alive, from the very small to the very large - depending on how one defines the term. 

Spectroscopic Evidence of Cosmic Life (freeze dried space bacteria)

N. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Ph.D. at the Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology, conducted a Spectrographic analysis of the Cosmos demonstrating the existence of biological material everywhere in the Universe. Spectrographic analysis captures light from distant points in the night sky and filters it through a glass plate meshed with very thin slits (similar to the double slit experiment). Light refracts as it passes through the slit, revealing the elemental makeup of the light source; what kind of 'stuff' is there.  Quotes from the paper:

"A wide range of spectroscopic data from the far infrared to the far ultraviolet points to the conclusion that life is a cosmic phenomenon. Although there is a lingering reluctance to accept this position, alternative explanations for the total data set are beginning to appear contrived.
The astronomical data, except for the ultraviolet "hump" centred at 2175A, is explained by the scattering behaviour of desiccated bacteria together with a 10% mass contribution from scattering by viral or nanobacteria-sized grains. The hump in the extinction curve at 2175A was initially attributed to small spherical graphite particles (Wickramasinghe, 1967), but later, more realistically identified as arising from aromatic molecules derived from biology (Hoyle and Wickramasinghe 1991). The entire extinction/absorption profile in Fig. 1 demands nearly 30% of the interstellar carbon to be tied up in the form of scattering and absorbing dust particles."
The data shows a elements in proportions suggesting living systems, microbiology. The paper goes on to suggest that life 'infects' habitable planets, but what I think is more likely is that under the right conditions life emerges from any place it can. 

Sea Plankton Outside of International Space Station

Russian Cosmonauts found Sea Plankton on the International Space Station. The report suggests it may have come from contamination, which is certainly possible, but what is far more interesting is the fact it can live up there at all. Contamination is one thing, but sea plankton sustaining itself for decades in the harshness of space, makes the notion of life existing everywhere much more plausible. Quote from the article: 
"Russian cosmonauts Olek Artemyev and Alexander Skvortsov were on a routine spacewalk to launch nanosatellites (tossing them like tennis balls to Russian wolfhounds) when they noticed some dirt on the outside of the Russian side of the space station and on a window called an illuminator. They used wipes to clean the surfaces and a later analysis of the microscopic particles identified them as sea plankton and other microorganisms."

- Justin

Source -  Daily Mail 


Evolution of life's 'operating system' revealed: 4-billion-year-old molecules could provide clues to the origins of existence
Every living thing on Earth depends on a mysterious tangle of molecules called ribosomes.

These are the cell’s protein factories, translating the genetic information in DNA into an amino acid sequence to create proteins.

Scientists believe that the ribosome - whose history is difficult to track - holds clues to how the first molecules of life came together around four billion years ago.

Scroll down for video


In a new study, scientists compared three-dimensional structures of ribosomes from a variety of species of varying biological complexity, including humans, yeast, bacteria and archaea. The researchers found distinct fingerprints in the ribosomes where new structures were added to its surface.

Now researchers are a step closer to uncovering these clues after modelling the evolution of these biological factories in unprecedented detail.

WHAT IS A RIBOSOME?

Ribosomes are the biological superstructures that translate genetic information into proteins.

These small biosynthetic factories convert the DNA genetic information into an amino acid sequence – which is the primary structure of proteins that make up our body.

In each living cell, the information contained in the nucleus of a cell is 'transferred' to a messenger RNA (mRNA).

The mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to something known as the endoplasmic reticulum where two ribosome subunits assemble around it and start synthesising proteins.

Hundreds of thousands of ribosomes work in each living cell.

For example, quickly replicating cells, such as liver cells, may contain a few million ribosomes. Even bacterial cells may contain up to 100,000 ribosomes.

By digitally peeling back the layers of modern ribosomes, scientists at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta were able to model the structures of the very first of these biological factories.

'The history of the ribosome tells us about the origin of life,' said Loren Williams, a professor in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

'We have worked out on a fine level of detail how the ribosome originated and evolved.'

Humans have the largest and most complex ribosomes.

'But the changes are on the surface – researchers found the heart of a human ribosome is the same as in a mould ribosome.

[Click Here for 6 minute video showing animation.]



Pictured are ribosomes from the salivary gland of an insect. Ribosomes are the biological superstructures that translate genetic information into proteins.These small biosynthetic factories convert the DNA genetic information into an amino acid sequence – which is the primary structure of proteins that make up our body

'The translation system is the operating system of life,' Professor Williams said. 'At its core the ribosome is the same everywhere. The ribosome is universal biology.'

The study compared three-dimensional structures of ribosomes from a variety of species of varying biological complexity, including humans, yeast, bacteria and archaea.

The researchers found distinct fingerprints in the ribosomes where new structures were added to the ribosomal surface without altering the core.

The research team worked the process backwards in time to generate models of simple, primordial ribosomes.

'We learned some of the rules of the ribosome, that evolution can change the ribosome as long as it does not mess with its core,' Professor Williams said.

'Evolution can add things on, but it can’t change what was already there.'



Hundreds of thousands of ribosomes work in each living cell. For example, quickly replicating cells, such as liver cells, may contain a few million ribosomes. Even bacterial cells may contain up to 100,000 ribosomes. Ribosome (pictured) can be found in different parts of a cell


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Source - Journal of Cosmology


Journal of Cosmology, 2010, Vol 11, 3476-3488.
JournalofCosmology.com September, 2010


Spectroscopic Evidence of Cosmic LifeN. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Ph.D. 
Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology, 24 Llwynypia Road, Lisvane, Cardiff CF14 0SY 

Abstract
A wide range of spectroscopic data from the far infrared to the far ultraviolet points to the conclusion that life is a cosmic phenomenon. Although there is a lingering reluctance to accept this position, alternative explanations for the total data set are beginning to appear contrived.
Keywords: Cosmology, astrobiology, origin of life, panspermia




1. Introduction
More than 3 decades ago Fred Hoyle and the present writer began arguing the case for the widespread occurrence of microbial life in the Universe (Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, 1977, 1981, 1982, 2000). The interstellar dust grains as well as a vast array of molecules present in space were shown to represent components that may have derived from biology. If biology is not confined to Earth, and microorganisms can infect a vast multitude of habitable domains in the galaxy, such an assertion has a prima facie plausibility at least. It cannot be denied that cosmic life is a scientific hypothesis worthy of investigation and empirical test. A first test would be to ascertain the nature of the material present in interstellar dust clouds such as shown in Plate 1, which are sites where new stars form, and where molecules and dust particles are known to exist in vast quantity. It has been known for a several decades that the cosmic dust particles are of exactly the right sizes to be identified with microorganisms.



Plate 1 The Carina Nebula (NGC 3372) is a large bright nebula containing dust, molecules and young stars.2. Interstellar Extinction
Freeze-dried bacterial cells in various stages of degradation distributed throughout the galaxy would give rise to predictable spectroscopic features. The points in Fig. 1 show the interstellar extinction curve in the form it was known since the mid-1970's, and the solid curve represents the behaviour of a biological grain model. The astronomical data, except for the ultraviolet "hump" centred at 2175A, is explained by the scattering behaviour of desiccated bacteria together with a 10% mass contribution from scattering by viral or nanobacteria-sized grains. The hump in the extinction curve at 2175A was initially attributed to small spherical graphite particles (Wickramasinghe, 1967), but later, more realistically identified as arising from aromatic molecules derived from biology (Hoyle and Wickramasinghe 1991). The entire extinction/absorption profile in Fig. 1 demands nearly 30% of the interstellar carbon to be tied up in the form of scattering and absorbing dust particles.


Fig.1 Agreement between interstellar extinction (plus signs) and biological models. Mixtures of hollow bacterial grains, biological aromatic molecules and nanobacteria provide excellent fits to the astronomical data. The 2175A hump in the extinction is caused by biological aromatic molecules (See J. Wickramasinghe et al 2010, for details).3. Infrared Signatures (UIB's)
The first infrared absorption spectrum indicating cosmic biology was obtained for the Galactic Centre source GCIRS7 by D.T. Wickramasinghe and D.A. Allen (Wickramasinghe and Allen, 1980; Allen and Wickramasinghe, 1981), and interpreted as biological material by Hoyle and Wickramasinghe (1979, 1980, 1991). For reasons of historical interest this comparison is reproduced in Fig. 2. The solid curves show the close correspondence over the waveband 2.8-12 µm (Willner et al, 1979), and the inset shows the detailed correspondence with the astronomical data over the 2.9-3.9 µm waveband (Allen and Wickramasinghe, 1981). From the measured value of the absorption coefficient of desiccated bacteria at 3.4 micrometres of ~ 500 cm2g-1, and the astronomical data in Fig. 2 we can readily infer that about 25-30% of all the interstellar carbon in the line of sight of GC-IRS7 must be in the form of bacterial-type grains. Spectroscopically at least the interstellar grains are indistinguishable from bacteria.
With improved techniques of observation the infrared region of astronomical sources has been more thoroughly investigated in recent years, for instance by the ESA infrared space observatory and the Spitzer Space telescope. Biological signatures have continued assert themselves in a wide range of astronomical spectra. The inference of an all pervasive cosmic life implied in the correspondences shown in Figs 1 and 2 continue to become stronger with the arrival of new data (Smith et al, 2007). Attempts to explain much of this data in terms of abiotic processes producing organic molecules, polymers and PAH's remain contrived and unproven.



Fig. 2. The infrared spectrum of GC IRS7 showing consistency with desiccated microorganisms over the waveband 2 – 12 micrometres (Data points from Allen and Wickramasinghe, 1981; Willner et al, 1979; Modelling by Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, 1991). The model implies 25-30% of carbon in the interstellar medium is in the form of bacteria-like grains.A set of unidentified infrared emission bands (UIBs) between 3.3 and 22 μm is found in almost every dusty region of the galaxy as well as in the spectra of external galaxies. Recent observations of such UIBs for a large number of galactic and extragalactic sources have been obtained using the Spitzer Space Telescope (Smith et al., 2007). Fig. 3 shows the spectra of a young planetary nebula and a protoplanetary nebula showing characteristic UIB's (Kwok, 2009). The comparison of the UIB wavelengths with naturally occurring biological systems replete with PAH's is shown in Table 1.



Fig. 3 ISO SWS01 spectra of the young Planetary Nebula IRAS 21282+5050 and the Protoplanetary Nebula IRAS 07134+1005 (adapted from Kwok, 2009).


Table 1. Distribution of two sets of astronomical observations (UIBs and proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) bands) and major IR absorption bands in biological models (Rauf and Wickramasinghe, 2010).
Continue Reading: http://journalofcosmology.com/Panspermia12.html
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Source - Mysterious Universe

Disclosure: What Is Sea Plankton Doing On The Outside Of The ISS (International Space Station)?



Source - Mysterious Universe

There’s no oxygen, zero gravity, extreme temperatures and a constant barrage of cosmic radiation on the outside of the International Space Station. So how did sea plankton get there and why is it still alive and thriving?

Russian cosmonauts Olek Artemyev and Alexander Skvortsov were on a routine spacewalk to launch nanosatellites (tossing them like tennis balls to Russian wolfhounds) when they noticed some dirt on the outside of the Russian side of the space station and on a window called an illuminator. They used wipes to clean the surfaces and a later analysis of the microscopic particles identified them as sea plankton and other microorganisms.

This has never been seen before, says Vladimir Solovyev, chief of the Russian ISS orbital mission. It must have been on the module when it was launched, you say? Good guess but Solovyev says the sea plankton is not indigenous to Baikonur, Kazakhstan, where the Russian launches took place.

Location in Kazakhstan where space station components were launched.

So how did sea plankton end up 260 miles up in space? It didn’t just float up there on its own, did it? You’re getting warmer, says Solovyev.

Plankton in these stages of development could be found on the surface of the oceans. This is not typical for Baikonur. It means that there are some uplifting air currents which reach the station and settle on its surface.
The first components of the space station were launched in 1998 so the plankton could have been living there for years. It’s known that microorganisms can live in extreme conditions but this is a first for the ISS. So far, NASA has made no comment about the plankton discovery nor if our astronauts are as diligent as the Russians in keeping our side of the space station clean and shiny.

In the meantime, Solovyev plans further studies on the outer space plankton.

If this stuff can grow without oxygen or gravity under extreme temperatures while being bombarded by cosmic radiation, it sounds like the perfect thing to put in my office instead of plants. 



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Sources:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2676536/Evolution-lifes-operating-revealed-4-billion-year-old-molecules-provide-clues-origin-existence.html

http://journalofcosmology.com/Panspermia12.html

http://mysteriousuniverse.org/2014/08/what-is-sea-plankton-doing-on-the-outside-of-the-iss/

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